Monoclonal Antibodies Drugs and therapy

How do Monoclonal Antibodies Drugs Work? Therapy and Treatment?

What are Monoclonal antibodies drugs Therapy? and most importantly How do monoclonal antibodies drugs work? all explained in simple language.

So, you may have encountered this term every now and then, and I assure you, it is not as complicated as it looks. Here is all you need to know.

What are Monoclonal Antibodies?

Monoclonal antibodies are proteins that are produced by white blood cells (B lymphocytes) in response to disease or infection. They work by binding specifically to molecules on the surface of certain cells like cancer cells, preventing them from working properly or causing them to die.

The monoclonal antibodies drugs are made up of a single type of antibody that can be customized to target a specific type of cell eg. a Cancer cell, making them more effective than other types of treatments. Monoclonal antibodies treatment can be used to treat various cancers such as lymphoma, leukemia, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and melanoma as well as some types of solid tumors such as lung.

What is Monoclonal Antibodies Therapy

Monoclonal Antibodies therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses antibodies to target and kill cancer cells. The first type of monoclonal antibody drug was approved for use in the U.S. in 1986, and since then many more have been developed.
The antibodies are often called immunotherapies because they help the body’s immune system fight cancer cells.

Monoclonal antibody therapy is different from other types of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, because it targets only cancer cells for destruction. Monoclonal antibodies work by binding to molecules on the surface of cells that signal a cell to grow and multiply.

How Monoclonal Antibodies are made?

Normally, in humans or any other higher animal, B-Cells are responsible for producing antibodies. They produce different kinds of antibodies at the same time to fight off the infection.

The Monoclonal antibodies are created by cloning a B-cell (usually taken from a healthy mouse) and infecting it with human cancer cells to produce a hybrid cell that is Cancerous and has an antibody-producing character from a B-Cell. Natural human antibodies are produced by these Hybrid cells that can be harvested and used to make drugs for Patients.

How do Monoclonal Antibodies Drugs Work 

There is a very simple mechanism of working of Monoclonal Antibodies Drugsin treatment of various diseases.

The hybrid cells proliferate and produce monoclonal antibodies. Every monoclonal antibody will have an identical genetic makeup, enabling them all to bind specifically to certain and same antigens on the surface of other cells.

Means, That monoclonal antibodies drugs are made up of a single type of antibody that is customized to target a specific type of cell  (eg. a Cancer cell) and its receptor making them more effective than other types of treatments (These are like a bunch of keys that only opens a single lock- In medical terms, it means the keys are antibodies and lock is the Antigen receptor on the offending cell).

After binding, it exerts different inhibitory effects on that particular cell such as:

  • Growth inhibition.
  • Destroy the Walls of the cell (Cell membrane).
  • Monoclonal antibodies can prevent the formation of new vessels that are being built by growing cancer cells to feed themselves.
    • Hence results in depletion and regression of a tumor.
  • Shutting down its communication and signaling with other cells.
  • Directly attack the cancer cell resulting in immediate cell death.

What are Monoclonal Antibodies Drugs

The most common types of monoclonal antibody drugs are the drugs that are used to treat cancer. These are:

  • Herceptin (Trastuzumab) for Breast cancer
  • Rituxan (Rituximab) for Blood Cancer
  • Avastin (Bevacizumab)
    • These drugs are often used together to treat breast cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and lymphoma
  • Belimumab (Benlysta)
  • Golimumab
  • Palivizumab
  • Tocilizumab

Other conditions for which the Monoclonal Antibodies Drugs are used are

  • Infliximab For Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Omalizumab for severe Asthma
  • Idarucizumab (To reverse the anticoagulant effect in toxicity of Dabigatran)


They found another effective way to treat cancer Read it here

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